Strong and sensible, the Cairn Terrier is extremely friendly — and utterly irresistible.
- Dog Breed Group
- Life Span
- 12 to 15 years
Adaptabilitybased on 6 ratings
Trainabilitybased on 6 ratings
Health & Groomingbased on 6 ratings
All-around friendlinessbased on 4 ratings
Exercise needsbased on 4 ratings
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The Cairn Terrier dog breed is a small working terrier developed on the Isle of Skye in Scotland. Farmers used him to rid their property of vermin, and they needed a dog with courage, tenacity, and intelligence — characteristics still found in today's Cairn. He is a sensible, independent, and friendly dog who excels as a family companion.
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If you've seen the movie The Wizard of Oz, you've seen one of the most famous Cairn Terriers ever. The dog who played Toto in the film was a female Cairn named Terry. Paid $125 per week for her role as Toto, she was owned by trainer Carl Spitz, and she had appeared in several movies prior to her famous role in Oz. She lived to be 11 years old.
The film character Toto is characteristically Cairn: a small, sturdy, shaggy-coated terrier who's highly intelligent and confident. The breed is alert and always ready for action.
The Cairn is also curious and quick to learn. And, like all terriers, he's independent and a bit stubborn. He must know who is in charge, or he will take charge. Early obedience training and socialization are essential.
In spite of his independent nature, the Cairn is a sensitive dog. His feelings are easily hurt, and he doesn't respond well to scolding or harsh corrections. Kind, positive training is the best method for teaching the Cairn.
There is little this smart dog can't learn. With proper training, a Cairn can master an unlimited number of tricks and commands. However, it may be downright impossible to stop a Cairn from doing what Terriers love to do: chase (and dig and bark). The Cairn will chase squirrels, cats, rabbits, and other dogs if given a chance. For this reason, he should only be walked in public places on a leash, and he should be given free run only in a securely fenced yard.
The Cairn actively loves kids and will patiently bear their boisterous ways. Of course, children should not be left alone with dogs of any breed, including the Cairn, and responsible adults should always supervise interactions between kids and dogs.
The Cairn Terrier is a family dog, and he needs to live in the house (or apartment or condo) with his family. He thrives on attention from his loved ones, and he's unhappy if left alone too much. He can become bored at such times, which leads to destructive or annoying behaviors like barking, digging, or chewing.
A Cairn Terrier is a wonderful family companion. He's fun and entertaining, loves to play with kids, and sounds the alarm when visitors approach. He is able to compete in obedience, agility, or Earthdog trials. A Cairn is a great pet for anyone who wants an independent, alert companion with a take-charge attitude toward life.
- The Cairn is a Terrier, which means his natural instincts are to bark, dig, and chase. These behaviors can be minimized with training, but they can't be eliminated. If you don't enjoy the typical terrier temperament, you should consider another breed.
- The Cairn is intelligent and curious. He also has a mind of his own. He will challenge your authority — good naturedly, of course — but you must be able to establish and maintain your role as pack leader, or he'll get the upper hand.
- The Cairn loves the attention of his family. Do not leave him alone for long periods of time or he may become destructive.
- The Cairn Terrier often thinks he's bigger than he actually is. Don't be surprised if he stands up for himself against large dogs or animals.
- To get a healthy dog, never buy a puppy from an irresponsible breeder, puppy mill, or pet store. Look for a reputable breeder who tests her breeding dogs to make sure they're free of genetic diseases that they might pass onto the puppies, and that they have sound temperaments.
The Cairn Terrier was developed more than 200 years ago on the Isle of Skye, where Captain Martin MacLeod is credited with developing one of the oldest strains of the breed.
All terrier breeds in Scotland were originally classified as Scotch Terriers. In 1873, a new system was implemented and Scotch Terriers were separated into two classes: Dandie Dinmont Terriers and Skye Terriers.
The Skye Terrier classification included Cairns as well as dogs that are now known as Scottish Terriers, West Highland White Terriers. These breeds were distinguished only by color, as all three could come from the same litter. A club for Hard-Haired Scotch Terriers was formed for the three breeds in 1881; a standard was approved in 1882.
Toward the end of the 19th century, Scottish Terrier breeders began to select for different characteristics, color among them. The West Highland White Terrier became a separate breed in 1908.
In 1912, the Cairn Terrier was designated as a breed, taking its name from the piles of stones that marked ancient Scottish burial or memorial sites. These stone piles were often hideouts for the vermin sought by the terriers.
The first Cairn Terriers were imported to the United States by Mrs. Henry F. Price and Mrs. Byron Rodgers in 1913. In both the U.S. and in England, the Cairn and the West Highland White were interbred until 1917, when the American Kennel Club barred registration to any dog from such interbreeding. That same year, the Cairn Terrier Club of America was granted AKC membership.
Males stand 10 inches tall and weigh 14 pounds. Females stand 9.5 inches tall and weigh 13 pounds.
The Cairn Terrier is a wonderfully friendly dog. He's happy and cheerful, and he seems to truly enjoy meeting people. He's also all terrier: independent, tough, and alert. Like any dog of the breed, he places digging, barking, and chasing high on his list of fun activities. He'll chase any small animal, including the neighbor's cat, if given a chance. He's a good watchdog, too, and will announce any visitor.
Though independent, the Cairn is devoted to his family and is happiest when he's part of his owners' daily lives. He likes to be in the house, playing with the kids, following you room to room, joining you at the front door when you greet a friend. He's also known for being sensitive. He doesn't like to be scolded and is upset when you're not happy with him.
Temperament is affected by a number of factors, including heredity, training, and socialization. Puppies with nice temperaments are curious and playful, willing to approach people and be held by them. Choose the middle-of-the-road puppy, not the one who's beating up his littermates or the one who's hiding in the corner.
Always meet at least one of the parents — usually the mother is the one who's available — to ensure that they have nice temperaments that you're comfortable with. Meeting siblings or other relatives of the parents is also helpful for evaluating what a puppy will be like when he grows up.
Like every dog, the Cairn needs early socialization — exposure to many different people, sights, sounds, and experiences — when they're young. Socialization helps ensure that your Cairn puppy grows up to be a well-rounded dog.
Enrolling him in a puppy kindergarten class is a great start. Inviting visitors over regularly, and taking him to busy parks, stores that allow dogs, and on leisurely strolls to meet neighbors will also help him polish his social skills.
Cairns are generally healthy, but like all breeds, they're prone to certain health conditions. Not all Cairns will get any or all of these diseases, but it's important to be aware of them if you're considering this breed.
If you're buying a puppy, find a good breeder who will show you health clearances for both your puppy's parents. Health clearances prove that a dog has been tested for and cleared of a particular condition.
In Cairns, you should expect to see health clearances from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) for hip dysplasia (with a score of fair or better), elbow dysplasia, hypothyroidism, and von Willebrand's disease; from Auburn University for thrombopathia; and from the Canine Eye Registry Foundation (CERF) certifying that eyes are normal. You can confirm health clearances by checking the OFA web site (offa.org).
- Craniomandibular Osteopathy: This affects the skull bones of a growing puppy, causing them to become irregularly enlarged. Symptoms usually appear between four and eight months of age. The cause is unknown but believed to be hereditary. Often the puppy's jaw and glands will become swollen, and he won't be able to open his mouth. He'll drool, have a fluctuating fever that recurs every couple of weeks, and, in some cases, his chewing muscles may atrophy. Anti-inflammatories and pain relievers help the dog deal with what is a painful condition. The irregular bone growth slows and typically stops by the time the puppy becomes a year old. The lesions can regress, but a few dogs have permanent jaw problems and therefore have trouble eating. Occasional cases are severe enough to call for jaw surgery.
- Cryptorchidism: Cryptorchidism is the failure of one or both of the testicles to descend into the scrotum. Testicles should descend fully by the time the puppy is two months old. If a testicle is retained, it is usually nonfunctional and can become cancerous if not removed. Treatment is surgical neutering.
- Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy: Also known as Krabbe's disease, this is a degenerative disease of the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. Affected puppies die at a very early age or are euthanized. There is now a test available that can identify carriers of this disease. Breeding dogs should be tested.
- Hypothyroidism: This is a disorder of the thyroid gland. It's thought to be responsible for conditions such as epilepsy, alopecia (hair loss), obesity, lethargy, hyperpigmentation, pyoderma, and other skin conditions. It is treated with medication and diet.
- Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease: This affliction involves the hip joint. If your Cairn has Legg-Perthes, the blood supply to the head of the femur (the large rear leg bone) is decreased, and the head of the femur that connects to the pelvis begins to disintegrate. The first symptoms, limping and atrophy of the leg muscle, usually occur when puppies are four to six months old. Surgery can correct the condition, usually resulting in a pain-free puppy.
- Patellar Luxation: Also known as slipped stifles, this is a common problem in small dogs. The patella is the kneecap. Luxation means dislocation of an anatomical part (as a bone at a joint). Patellar luxation is when the knee joint (often of a hind leg) slides in and out of place, causing pain. This can be crippling, although many dogs lead relatively normal lives with this condition.
- Ocular Melanosis/Secondary Glaucoma: Formerly called pigmentary glaucoma, this is a fairly recent development in the United States (since 1984). It is a painful inherited condition that occurs primarily in Cairns between seven and 12 years old. The condition generally affects both eyes. Watch both eyes for small spots or patches of very dark pigmentation within the sclera (white part of the eye). The pigment deposits accumulate and decrease ability of fluid to drain out of the anterior chamber. This leads to increased pressure, which is known as secondary glaucoma. If diagnosed early, the condition can be controlled with medication.
- Portosystemic Liver Shunt: This is a congenital abnormality in which blood vessels allow blood to bypass the liver. As a result, the blood is not cleansed by the liver as it should be. Surgery is usually the best option.
Caring for a Cairn Terrier isn't difficult. Because of his small size, he's a good dog for apartment dwellers, but he's also hardy enough to enjoy ranch life. He must have sufficient exercise and activity, however. A long daily walk or vigorous play for 20 to 30 minutes will help keep him healthy and alert.
Despite the fact that he's a quick study, remember that the Cairn also has a stubborn streak. Regular obedience training (beginning with puppy classes) is essential to teach him good manners and respect for your authority. Don't be surprised if he challenges you — just keep training. Be positive, kind, and consistent.
A "quiet" command should be one of your Cairn's basics. Don't let him off-leash in public places; he's likely to give in to any temptation to chase. And don't give him unsupervised free time in the yard. He'll dig, and he doesn't care whether he excavates a secluded area by the fence or your lovely new flower garden.
Recommended daily amount: 1/2 to 1 cup of high-quality dry food a day, divided into two meals.
NOTE: How much your adult dog eats depends on his size, age, build, metabolism, and activity level. Dogs are individuals, just like people, and they don't all need the same amount of food. It almost goes without saying that a highly active dog will need more than a couch potato dog. The quality of dog food you buy also makes a difference — the better the dog food, the further it will go toward nourishing your dog and the less of it you'll need to shake into your dog's bowl.
Keep your Cairn in good shape by measuring his food and feeding him twice a day rather than leaving food out all the time. If you're unsure whether he's overweight, give him the eye test and the hands-on test.
First, look down at him. You should be able to see a waist. Then place your hands on his back, thumbs along the spine, with the fingers spread downward. You should be able to feel but not see his ribs without having to press hard. If you can't, he needs less food and more exercise.
For more on feeding your Cairn, see our guidelines for buying the right food, feeding your puppy, and feeding your adult dog.
Coat, Color and Grooming
The scruffy-looking Cairn Terrier has a double coat: a wiry outer coat and soft undercoat. The coat comes in many colors, including red, brindle, black, sand, and gray.
This coat is easy to groom. A thorough brushing once a week is sufficient, as is periodic bathing (every three months or so, or as needed). Frequent bathing isn't recommended because it softens the coarse terrier coat. While a soft coat isn't harmful to any dog, and is fine for a pet, it does detract from a show Cairn's physical appearance.
Some trimming is necessary for the Cairn — mostly to tidy his look, not radically style his locks. If he's to be a show dog, his coat isn't trimmed with clippers (as is the Poodle's coat, for example), but shortened or shaped by stripping with a stripping knife. Stripping isn't really necessary for a family pet, however; a professional trim with clippers two to three times a year is fine (though be aware that this practice softens the breed's naturally coarse coat).
Brush your Cairn's teeth at least two or three times a week to remove tartar buildup and the bacteria that lurk inside it. Daily brushing is even better if you want to prevent gum disease and bad breath.
Trim his nails once or twice a month if your dog doesn't wear them down naturally to prevent painful tears and other problems. If you can hear them clicking on the floor, they're too long. Dog toenails have blood vessels in them, and if you cut too far you can cause bleeding — and your dog may not cooperate the next time he sees the nail clippers come out. So, if you're not experienced trimming dog nails, ask a vet or groomer for pointers.
His ears should be checked weekly for redness or a bad odor, which can indicate an infection. When you check your dog's ears, wipe them out with a cotton ball dampened with gentle, pH-balanced ear cleaner to help prevent infections. Don't insert anything into the ear canal; just clean the outer ear.
Begin accustoming your Cairn to being brushed and examined when he's a puppy. Handle his paws frequently — dogs are touchy about their feet — and look inside his mouth. Make grooming a positive experience filled with praise and rewards, and you'll lay the groundwork for easy veterinary exams and other handling when he's an adult.
As you groom, check for sores, rashes, or signs of infection such as redness, tenderness, or inflammation on the skin, in the nose, mouth, and eyes, and on the feet. Eyes should be clear, with no redness or discharge. Your careful weekly exam will help you spot potential health problems early.
Children and other pets
The Cairn Terrier loves kids and is highly tolerant of them. In fact, he enjoys the noise and commotion that goes along with children. As for other pets, a properly socialized and trained Cairn tends to get along with and respect those in the household. He's apt to chase any other animal that comes into his yard, however.
As with every breed, you should always teach children how to approach and touch dogs, and always supervise any interactions between dogs and young children to prevent any biting or ear or tail pulling on the part of either party. Teach your child never to approach any dog while he's eating or sleeping or to try to take the dog's food away. No dog, no matter how friendly, should ever be left unsupervised with a child.
Cairns are often purchased without any clear understanding of what goes into owning one. There are many Cairns in need of adoption and or fostering. There are a number of rescues that we have not listed. If you don't see a rescue listed for your area, contact the national breed club or a local breed club and they can point you toward a Cairn rescue.
Below are breed clubs, organizations, and associations where you can find additional information about the Cairns.
All Breed Characteristics
Measures how well this breed potentially adapts to different environments
Measures the amount and difficulty of training potentially required for this breed
Health & Grooming
Measures how much effort this breed potentially needs to keep a tidy hound and home
Measures this breed's potential to get along with other dogs and humans
Measures this breed's potential to require lots of physical activity
Adapt well to apartment living
Contrary to popular belief, small size doesn't necessarily an apartment dog make -- plenty of small dogs are too high-energy and yappy for life in a high-rise. Being quiet, low energy, fairly calm indoors, and polite with the other residents, are all good qualities in an apartment dog.
Affectionate with family
Some breeds are independent and aloof, even if they've been raised by the same person since puppyhood; others bond closely to one person and are indifferent to everyone else; and some shower the whole family with affection. Breed isn't the only factor that goes into affection levels; dogs who were raised inside a home with people around feel more comfortable with humans and bond more easily.
Amount of shedding
If you're going to share your home with a dog, you'll need to deal with some level of dog hair on your clothes and in your house. However, shedding does vary greatly among the breeds: Some dogs shed year-round, some "blow" seasonally -- produce a snowstorm of loose hair -- some do both, and some shed hardly at all. If you're a neatnik you'll need to either pick a low-shedding breed, or relax your standards.
Friendliness toward dogs and friendliness toward humans are two completely different things. Some dogs may attack or try to dominate other dogs even if they're love-bugs with people; others would rather play than fight; and some will turn tail and run. Breed isn't the only factor; dogs who lived with their littermates and mother until at least 6 to 8 weeks of age, and who spent lots of time playing with other dogs during puppyhood, are more likely to have good canine social skills.
Drool-prone dogs may drape ropes of slobber on your arm and leave big, wet spots on your clothes when they come over to say hello. If you've got a laid-back attitude toward slobber, fine; but if you're a neatnik, you may want to choose a dog that rates low in the drool department.
Easy to groom
Some breeds are brush-and-go dogs; others require regular bathing, clipping, and other grooming just to stay clean and healthy. Consider whether you have the time and patience for a dog that needs a lot of grooming, or the money to pay someone else to do it.
Easy to train
Easy to train dogs are more adept at forming an association between a prompt (such as the word "sit"), an action (sitting), and a consequence (getting a treat) very quickly. Other dogs need more time, patience, and repetition during training. Many breeds are intelligent but approach training with a "What's in it for me?" attitude, in which case you'll need to use rewards and games to teach them to want to comply with your requests.
High-energy dogs are always ready and waiting for action. Originally bred to perform a canine job of some sort, such as retrieving game for hunters or herding livestock, they have the stamina to put in a full workday. They need a significant amount of exercise and mental stimulation, and they're more likely to spend time jumping, playing, and investigating any new sights and smells. Low-energy dogs are the canine equivalent of a couch potato, content to doze the day away. When picking a breed, consider your own activity level and lifestyle, and think about whether you'll find a frisky, energetic dog invigorating or annoying.
Some breeds do fine with a slow evening stroll around the block. Others need daily, vigorous exercise -- especially those that were originally bred for physically demanding jobs, such as herding or hunting. Without enough exercise, these breeds may put on weight and vent their pent-up energy in ways you don't like, such as barking, chewing, and digging. Breeds that need a lot of exercise are good for outdoorsy, active people, or those interested in training their dog to compete in a high-energy dog sport, such as agility.
Friendly toward strangers
Stranger-friendly dogs will greet guests with a wagging tail and a nuzzle; others are shy, indifferent, or even aggressive. However, no matter what the breed, a dog who was exposed to lots of different types, ages, sizes, and shapes of people as a puppy will respond better to strangers as an adult.
Due to poor breeding practices, some breeds are prone to certain genetic health problems, such as hip dysplasia. This doesn't mean that every dog of that breed will develop those diseases; it just means that they're at an increased risk. If you're buying a puppy, it's a good idea to find out which genetic illnesses are common to the breed you're interested in, so you can ask the breeder about the physical health of your potential pup's parents and other relatives.
Good for novice owners
Some dogs are simply easier than others: they take to training better and are fairly easygoing. They're also resilient enough to bounce back from your mistakes or inconsistencies. Dogs who are highly sensitive, independent thinking, or assertive may be harder for a first-time owner to manage. You'll get your best match if you take your dog-owning experience into account as you choose your new pooch.
Dogs who were bred for jobs that require decision making, intelligence, and concentration, such as herding livestock, need to exercise their brains, just as dogs who were bred to run all day need to exercise their bodies. If they don't get the mental stimulation they need, they'll make their own work -- usually with projects you won't like, such as digging and chewing. Obedience training and interactive dog toys are good ways to give a dog a brain workout, as are dog sports and careers, such as agility and search and rescue.
A vigorous dog may or may not be high-energy, but everything he does, he does with vigor: he strains on the leash (until you train him not to), tries to plow through obstacles, and even eats and drinks with great big gulps. These dynamos need lots of training to learn good manners, and may not be the best fit for a home with young kids or someone who's elderly or frail. A low-vigor dog, on the other hand, has a more subdued approach to life.
Being gentle with children, sturdy enough to handle the heavy-handed pets and hugs they can dish out, and having a blasé attitude toward running, screaming children are all traits that make a kid-friendly dog. You may be surprised by who's on that list: Fierce-looking Boxers are considered good with children, as are American Staffordshire Terriers (aka pit bulls). Small, delicate, and potentially snappy dogs such as Chihuahuas aren't so family-friendly.
**All dogs are individuals. Our ratings are generalizations, and they're not a guarantee of how any breed or individual dog will behave. Dogs from any breed can be good with children based on their past experiences, training on how to get along with kids, and personality. No matter what the breed or breed type, all dogs have strong jaws, sharp pointy teeth, and may bite in stressful circumstances. Young children and dogs of any breed should always be supervised by an adult and never left alone together, period.
Potential for mouthiness
Common in most breeds during puppyhood and in retriever breeds at all ages, mouthiness means a tendency to nip, chew, and play-bite (a soft, fairly painless bite that doesn't puncture the skin). Mouthy dogs are more likely to use their mouths to hold or "herd" their human family members, and they need training to learn that it's fine to gnaw on chew toys, but not on people. Mouthy breeds tend to really enjoy a game of fetch, as well as a good chew on a chew toy that's been stuffed with kibble and treats.
Potential for playfulness
Some dogs are perpetual puppies -- always begging for a game -- while others are more serious and sedate. Although a playful pup sounds endearing, consider how many games of fetch or tag you want to play each day, and whether you have kids or other dogs who can stand in as playmates for the dog.
Potential for weight gain
Some breeds have hearty appetites and tend to put on weight easily. As in humans, being overweight can cause health problems in dogs. If you pick a breed that's prone to packing on pounds, you'll need to limit treats, make sure he gets enough exercise, and measure out his daily kibble in regular meals rather than leaving food out all the time.
Dogs that were bred to hunt, such as terriers, have an inborn desire to chase and sometimes kill other animals. Anything whizzing by -- cats, squirrels, perhaps even cars -- can trigger that instinct. Dogs that like to chase need to be leashed or kept in a fenced area when outdoors, and you'll need a high, secure fence in your yard. These breeds generally aren't a good fit for homes with smaller pets that can look like prey, such as cats, hamsters, or small dogs. Breeds that were originally used for bird hunting, on the other hand, generally won't chase, but you'll probably have a hard time getting their attention when there are birds flying by.
Some dogs will let a stern reprimand roll off their backs, while others take even a dirty look to heart. Low-sensitivity dogs, also called "easygoing," "tolerant," "resilient," and even "thick-skinned," can better handle a noisy, chaotic household, a louder or more assertive owner, and an inconsistent or variable routine. Do you have young kids, throw lots of dinner parties, play in a garage band, or lead a hectic life? Go with a low-sensitivity dog.
Dogs come in all sizes, from the world's smallest pooch, the Chihuahua, to the towering Great Dane, how much space a dog takes up is a key factor in deciding if he is compatible with you and your living space.
Tendency to bark or howl
Some breeds sound off more often than others. When choosing a breed, think about how the dog vocalizes — with barks or howls — and how often. If you're considering a hound, would you find their trademark howls musical or maddening? If you're considering a watchdog, will a city full of suspicious "strangers" put him on permanent alert? Will the local wildlife literally drive your dog wild? Do you live in housing with noise restrictions? Do you have neighbors nearby?
Tolerates being alone
Some breeds bond very closely with their family and are more prone to worry or even panic when left alone by their owner. An anxious dog can be very destructive, barking, whining, chewing, and otherwise causing mayhem. These breeds do best when a family member is home during the day or if you can take the dog to work.
Tolerates cold weather
Breeds with very short coats and little or no undercoat or body fat, such as Greyhounds, are vulnerable to the cold. Dogs with a low cold tolerance need to live inside in cool climates and should have a jacket or sweater for chilly walks.
Tolerates hot weather
Dogs with thick, double coats are more vulnerable to overheating. So are breeds with short noses, like Bulldogs or Pugs, since they can't pant as well to cool themselves off. If you want a heat-sensitive breed, the dog will need to stay indoors with you on warm or humid days, and you'll need to be extra cautious about exercising your dog in the heat.
Some breeds are more free-spirited than others. Nordic dogs such as Siberian Huskies were bred to range long distances, and given the chance, they'll take off after anything that catches their interest. And many hounds simply must follow their noses, or that bunny that just ran across the path, even if it means leaving you behind.
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