German Pinscher

The German Pinscher dog breed is muscular and agile, powerful yet graceful. A medium-sized dog with an elegant appearance, they’re admired as much for their beauty as for their intelligence.

As the name implies, these pups originated in Germany. Although this is a pure breed of dog, you may find them in shelters and rescues, so remember to adopt! Don’t shop if you decide this is the dog for you.

German Pinschers are working dogs, guard dogs, and  devoted and loving family dogs. Although they can adapt to many living situations, their high intelligence and energy levels mean they will need lots of exercise. A home with a yard to run would be ideal.

DogTime recommends this dog bed to give a good night’s sleep to your medium-sized German Pinscher. You should also pick up this dog fetch toy to help burn off your pup’s high energy!

See all German Pinscher dog breed characteristics below!

German Pinscher Dog Breed Pictures

Breed Characteristics:


Adapts Well To Apartment Living
Good For Novice Owners
Sensitivity Level
Tolerates Being Alone
Tolerates Cold Weather
Tolerates Hot Weather

All Around Friendliness

Affectionate With Family
Dog Friendly
Friendly Toward Strangers

Health And Grooming Needs

Amount Of Shedding
Drooling Potential
Easy To Groom
General Health
Potential For Weight Gain


Easy To Train
Potential For Mouthiness
Prey Drive
Tendency To Bark Or Howl
Wanderlust Potential

Physical Needs

Energy Level
Exercise Needs
Potential For Playfulness

Vital Stats:

Dog Breed Group:
Working Dogs
17 to 20 inches tall at the shoulder
25 to 45 pounds
Life Span:
12 to 14 years

More About This Breed

  • The German Pinscher has the energy and drive of all working breeds, but they're also an outstanding companion. They love being with family and will meld themselves into every facet of your life.

    The German Pinscher's playfulness will continue well into adulthood, and they may continue to disembowel squeaky toys long past teething (dental floss is the best repair tool). When German Pinschers are in a spot of trouble at home, some will look you right in the eye and smile, showing their teeth in a big grin.

    The German Pinscher was originally developed as a working dog who hunted and killed vermin. That means they'll still nail them today, so they're not going to be good in a home with pet rodents.

    Today, they still have the energy of a working breed and have proved themselves to be an all-around kind of pooch when it comes to canine sports and careers. You can find German Pinschers in the conformation ring, at obedience rallies or agility trials and at work in tracking. They also work as service dogs, therapy dogs, and as pampered pets who enjoy the comforts of family life.

    They can be assertive and overbearing, and they'll take over your heart and home in a matter of seconds. Don't kid yourself: they need a firm, experienced owner who is consistent in training and good at establishing rules right from the beginning. If you tend to wimp out or you want a placid dog, find another breed--this one will walk all over you.

    However, they will also be completely, utterly, and permanently devoted to you. This devotion supports their ability to be an excellent guard dog. Despite an independent streak, they like to be in the middle of all family activities, right there with you.

    The German Pinscher will alert bark with a strong voice. If any intruder risks entering your home, this dog will defend it with everything they've got. And they're quite capable of taking care of an intruder: While they're not the largest guard dog around, maxing out at about 45 pounds, they're incredibly skillful at the job.

    Given that they look like a small Doberman Pinscher or a humongous Miniature Pinscher--they were a foundation dog for both of those breeds--and that they're suspicious of strangers, they can make some people nervous. They will accept your friends without problems; it's the folks you don't know who might hear that strong voice they're famous for, the one that sounds like it's coming from a much bigger dog. They save that voice for special occasions.

    A German Pinscher is intelligent and quick to learn, and they can reach all levels of training and competition. They also haev a personality that will test limits--both their own and yours. Apartments make adequate homes if you properly exercise your German Pinscher, but it isn't their ideal situation. They do better with a yard to run in--a properly fenced yard, to prevent any escape-artist tendencies. They have a strong prey drive and will chase any animal deemed interesting--unfortunately, you are not the one doing the deeming.

    They must be trained--start them at a young age. Since they're so intelligent, the task isn't difficult, even though they aren't as eager to please you as are some breeds; they really need a firm and consistent owner. Use positive reinforcement and establish consistent rules, because German Pinschers are known for their strong temperament--given half a chance, they'll take control of the house.

    But if you take the time and effort, the end result of training the German Pinscher is worth all the time it takes. For one thing, you don't want to end up living with a strong, wary, protective dog who's out of control; for another, it's highly satisfying to train such a smart and capable canine.

    Socialization is just as important as obedience training for the German Pinscher, and it helps avoid aggressiveness. As a puppy, they should be socialized to other dogs, puppies, adults, and children. Most obedience schools offer socialization classes, and they can also run errands with you, take long walks, go to the dog park, and have playdates with canine friends and two-legged children.

    Although a German Pinscher is a loving family companion, they're not recommended for homes with children under the age of nine because of their strong and assertive nature. This can be overpowering even to some adults, but especially to a child.

    However, if they're the dog for you, then there's no denying that the happy, loving, intelligent German Pinscher will make your family, life, and home complete.

  • Highlights

    • The German Pinscher is not recommended for homes with children under the age of nine.
    • A working breed, they need daily exercise and cannot be left untrained or unexercised. Expect a healthy amount of exercise each day to curb negative behaviors.
    • The German Pinscher can fare all right in an apartment as long as they're walked at least twice a day. However, they're better suited to a home that has a fenced yard.
    • They have a strong prey drive and will chase anything that they deem worth chasing. They should be kept on lead while not in a secured area, and fences should be secure enough that they can't slip through them.
    • The German Pinscher is a strong-willed breed that needs a consistent and firm owner. They have been known to take over a home if rules are not set when they're young. With training and consistency, however, the German Pinscher will learn quickly and well.
    • Naturally suspicious of strangers, the German Pinschers makes an excellent guard dog. By the same token, they need to be socialized from a young age to prevent the development of aggressive behavior.
    • The German Pinscher enjoys jumping up to greet loved ones, but proper training can correct this trait.
    • They will alert bark, and they have a strong, loud voice, but they won't bark unnecessarily.
    • They thrive when they're part of a family and can participate in family activities. This isn't a breed who can live outside, and they're unhappy being forgotten while life is busy.
    • The German Pinscher can become destructive when bored. They're also known for their ability to gut toys at an alarming rate.
    • Never buy a puppy from an irresponsible breeder, puppy mill, or pet store. Look into shelters or rescues if this is the breed for you.
  • History

    Originally developed to eradicate vermin, the German Pinscher originated in Germany somewhere between the late 1700s and late 1800s. There is no clear evidence of when exactly they were developed, but a painting that dates from about 1780 portrays a dog similar in appearance to the German Pinscher.

    The German Pinscher was a foundation dog for many breeds, including the Doberman Pinscher and the Miniature Pinscher. The breed was founded by the Rat Pinscher, also known as the Rat Catcher or the Great Ratter, a breed that became extinct in the early 1800s. The German Pinscher was recognized as a breed in 1895.

    During the World Wars, the German Pinscher came close to extinction. Two breed colors did in fact die out: the pure black and the salt-and-pepper. After World War II, a West German named Werner Jung began breeding German Pinschers and saved the breed. German Pinschers were first imported into the United States in the late 1970s.

  • Size

    The German Pinscher is a squarely built, muscular, medium-sized dog.

    The average height is between 17 to 20 inches for both males and females. They usually weigh between 25 and 45 pounds. Some may be smaller or larger than average.

  • Personality

    The German Pinscher is strong-willed, devoted, and in need of a consistent and firm owner. They can take over a home if rules are not set when they're young. With training and consistency, German Pinschers will learn quickly. Naturally suspicious of strangers, they make excellent guard dogs.

    Temperament is affected by a number of factors, including heredity, training, and socialization. Puppies with nice temperaments are curious and playful, willing to approach people and be held by them. If you have the option, you may wish to choose the middle-of-the-road puppy, not the one who's beating up their littermates or the one who's hiding in the corner.

    If you can, it may help to meet at least one of the parents--usually the mother is the one who's available--to find out if they have nice temperaments that you're comfortable with. Meeting siblings or other relatives of the parents is also helpful for evaluating what a puppy will be like when they grow up.

    Like every dog, the German Pinscher needs early socialization--exposure to many different people, sights, sounds, and experiences--when they're young. Socialization helps ensure that your German Pinscher puppy grows up to be a well-rounded dog.

    Enrolling them in a puppy kindergarten class is a great start. Inviting visitors over regularly, and taking them to busy parks, stores that allow dogs, and on leisurely strolls to meet neighbors will also help them polish their social skills.

    They're like a mischievous kid who will test your boundaries. Sure, they'll housetrain quickly, and they're quite trainable in other respects as well, but they want to know what they can get away with.

    You need mental and physical strength to control a German Pinscher and gain their respect. They must have a strong leader whose authority is tempered with patience and respect. If you aren't a calm person or are unable to say no and truly mean it, or you're not really interested in taking on in-depth training, look elsewhere.

  • Health

    German Pinschers are generally healthy, but like all breeds, they're prone to certain health conditions. Not all German Pinschers will get any or all of these diseases, but it's important to be aware of them if you're considering this breed.

    Here are a few conditions to be on the lookout for:

    • Hip Dysplasia: This is an inherited condition in which the thighbone doesn't fit snugly into the hip joint. Some dogs show pain and lameness on one or both rear legs, but others don't display outward signs of discomfort. X-ray screening is the most certain way to diagnose the problem. Either way, arthritis can develop as the dog ages. Dogs with hip dysplasia should not be bred--so if you're buying a puppy, ask the breeder for proof that the parents have been tested for hip dysplasia and are free of problems.
    • Cataracts: Cataracts cause opacity on the lens of the eye, resulting in poor vision. The dog's eye(s) will have a cloudy appearance. Cataracts usually occur in old age and sometimes can be surgically removed to improve vision.
    • Von Willebrand's Disease: Found in both dogs and humans, this is a blood disorder that affects the clotting process. An affected dog will have symptoms such as nosebleeds, bleeding gums, prolonged bleeding from surgery, prolonged bleeding during heat cycles or after whelping, and occasionally blood in the stool. This disorder is usually diagnosed between three and five years of age, and it can't be cured. However, it can be managed with treatments that include cauterizing or suturing injuries, transfusions before surgery, and avoidance of specific medications.
  • Care

    German Pinschers are active and need daily exercise either through a good run in the backyard or two long walks on lead. Supervise your German Pinscher when exercising, since they'll go bounding off after anything that's worth chasing.

    They'll be alright in an apartment if given enough exercise, but they prefer a home with a fenced yard in which they can play. They aren't suited to living outdoors full-time in a kennel or dog run, however; they thrive being with their family.

    This is a working breed dog who enjoys having a job to do. An unstimulated, untrained, and unexercised German Pinscher can head down a scary path of boredom and destruction. Give them something to work on while you're gone, such as interactive toys or Kongs with frozen peanut butter. They're no couch potato, content to lounge about all day enjoying bonbons.

    Crate training benefits every dog and is a kind way to ensure that your German Pinscher doesn't have accidents in the house or get into things they shouldn't. Like many other dogs, a German Pinscher can be destructive as a pup, and when even when they enter adulthood. Crate training is for their own safety. A crate is also a place where they can retreat for a nap.

    Crate training at a young age will help your Pinscher accept confinement if they ever need to be boarded or hospitalized. Never stick your Pinscher in a crate all day long, however. It's not a jail, and they shouldn't spend more than a few hours at a time in it except when they're sleeping at night. They aren't meant to spend their life locked up in a crate or kennel.

    Exercise, training, and laying down house rules for your German Pinscher all will help ensure that your companion is well behaved. It alleviates stress for you and them and provides opportunities to bond.

  • Feeding

    How much your adult dog eats depends on his size, age, build, metabolism, and activity level. Dogs are individuals, just like people, and they don't all need the same amount of food. It almost goes without saying that a highly active dog will need more than a couch potato dog. The quality of dog food you buy also makes a difference--the better the dog food, the further it will go toward nourishing your dog and the less of it you'll need to shake into your dog's bowl.

    Keep your German Pinscher in good shape by measuring their food and feeding him twice a day rather than leaving food out all the time. If you're unsure whether they're overweight, give them the eye test and the hands-on test.

    First, look down at your dog. You should be able to see a waist. Then place your hands on their back, thumbs along the spine, with the fingers spread downward. You should be able to feel but not see their ribs without having to press hard. If you can't, they need less food and more exercise.

    For more on feeding your German Pinscher, see our guidelines for buying the right food, feeding your puppy, and feeding your adult dog.

    Only your vet or pet nutritionist can give your dog a specific, individual recommendation on feeding, but it's generally advised that German Pinschers get a daily amount of one to two cups of high-quality dry food, divided into two meals.

  • Coat Color And Grooming

    The coat should be shiny and smooth in texture, short and dense with no bald spots. The German Pinscher sports a variety of colors, including various shades of red, stag red (in which there are black hairs intermingled with the red), and Isabella (a light bay or fawn color). German Pinschers can also be black or blue with tan or red markings.

    The German Pinscher is an average shedder and requires minimal grooming. Brushing their coat with a cloth or rubber mitt about once a week will get rid of any excess hair.

    Brush your German Pinscher's teeth at least two or three times a week to remove tartar buildup and the bacteria that lurk inside it. Daily brushing is even better if you want to prevent gum disease and bad breath.

    Trim their nails once or twice a month if your dog doesn't wear them down naturally to prevent painful tears and other problems. If you can hear them clicking on the floor, they're too long. Dog toenails have blood vessels in them, and if you cut too far you can cause bleeding--and your dog may not cooperate the next time they see the nail clippers come out. So, if you're not experienced trimming dog nails, ask a vet or groomer for pointers.

    Their ears should be checked weekly for redness or a bad odor, which can indicate an infection. When you check your dog's ears, wipe them out with a cotton ball dampened with gentle, pH-balanced ear cleaner to help prevent infections. Don't insert anything into the ear canal; just clean the outer ear.

    Begin accustoming your German Pinscher to being brushed and examined when they're a puppy. Handle their paws frequently--dogs are touchy about their feet--and look inside their mouth. Make grooming a positive experience filled with praise and rewards, and you'll lay the groundwork for easy veterinary exams and other handling when they're an adult.

    As you groom, check for sores, rashes, or signs of infection such as redness, tenderness, or inflammation on the skin, in the nose, mouth, and eyes, and on the feet. Eyes should be clear, with no redness or discharge. Your careful weekly exam will help you spot potential health problems early.

  • Children And Other Pets

    The German Pinscher usually does well with children when brought up with them from puppyhood. But because of their assertive nature, they do best with older children, preferably those over the age of nine. An older Pinscher who's unfamiliar with children will probably do best in a home with kids who are mature enough to interact with them properly.

    Always teach children how to approach and touch dogs, and always supervise any interactions between dogs and young children. Teach your child never to approach any dog while they're eating or to try to take the dog's food away. No dog should be left unsupervised with a child.

    The same holds true for the German Pinscher's attitude toward some kinds of pets; they do best if they've been raised with them, or at least socialized to other animals when they're still young. But remember that they were developed to hunt and kill vermin. They've got a high prey drive that's hardwired, and no amount of training will keep them from going after a pet rat. They're not a good match with small mammals.

  • Rescue Groups

    Because the German Pinscher is not an overly popular breed, it may be difficult to find a breed specific rescue. However, you can always check with your local shelter, and you may want to try a rescue that caters to all types of dogs. You can take a look at the following:

    You can also try DogTime's adoption page that lets you search for adoptable dogs by breed and zip code!

  • Breed Organizations

    Below are breed clubs, organizations, and associations where you can find additional information about the German Pinscher.

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