Dog Health & More
Saturday February 21st, 2009
As in humans, allergies are caused by an immune system that overreacts to an everyday substance, such as fleas, pollen, or a certain food. The following are the three most common culprits.
Atopic dermatitis is genetic. An affected dog inherits a tendency to develop skin problems from pollens, grasses and trees, dust mites, or mold spores.
It usually begins with a seasonal reaction to pollen when the dog is young, and progresses until the dog is allergic to many different substances year-round. Skin irritation usually shows up around the eyes and mouth, armpits, stomach, and anal area. Ear infections are also common.
Your vet can run a skin or blood test to see what's causing the problem, although these aren't always totally accurate and medication can interfere with the results. (Your dog shouldn't have prednisone for a month before the test, or antihistamines for 10 days before.)
Your vet may give your dog steroids for short-term relief from the itching, and immunotherapy (allergy shots) to lesson your dog's sensitivity to allergens long-term.
An allergy to blood-sucking fleas--or rather, to their saliva--is the single most common skin disease in dogs. In allergic dogs, a flea bite can cause extreme itching, red bumps, and inflamed skin that lasts for days. The more an allergic dog is bitten, the worse the allergy gets.
Steroids and antihistamines can make your dog less itchy, but the only real treatment is tight flea control in the house and yard, as well as on the dog. Luckily, the newer generation of flea control products is very effective.
Dogs can be allergic to several types of food, but the most common triggers are chicken, beef, corn, or wheat--all typical ingredients in commercial dog food. The allergy usually shows up as a skin problem, such as itching, rashes, and hot spots (warm spots of infected skin). Some dogs may have stomach upset as well, with chronic diarrhea or vomiting.
To find out what your dog's allergic to, work with your vet to try an allergy elimination diet. This diet involves giving your dog a special food (which you'll get from the vet), and over three or four months, gradually adding other foods back to your dog's diet. When he starts itching again, you've found your culprit and can keep it out of your dog's food bowl for good.
A visit to the vet is in order if you spot these allergy warning signs:
Dogs can get immunotherapy (often called "allergy shots"), just like people. Unlike drugs designed to ease symptoms, immunotherapy may make your dog less allergic by regularly exposing him to tiny amounts of whatever he's sensitive to. It's not effective for food allergies, though.
Not all dogs respond to immunotherapy. About 60 to 80 percent do very well with the shots, about a fourth get some relief, and another fourth don't respond at all. It takes weeks, months, or sometimes even a year to know if it's working. Expect the pay-off next allergy season, not this one.
If it does work, your dog will probably need regular shots for the rest of his life. Your vet or a veterinary dermatologist will teach you how to give the shots to your dog at home, although if you have a tough time doing this, the vet can do it for you. Rarely, a dog will have a serious reaction to the shots, so you'll need to schedule them when you'll be nearby for a half hour or hour afterward to keep an eye on your dog.
One final tip: buy the best darn treats you can find to give your dog after the shot, as it will ease the process.
You're in for management control for the life of your dog. Even if your dog is taking medication or getting allergy shots, chances are you'll still need to minimize his exposure to whatever he's allergic to. The good news is, it's much easier once you've figured out what's triggering the allergy.