Metronidazole is an antibiotic prescribed by veterinarians for dogs to treat diarrhea, inflammation of the large intestine, and other bacterial and parasitic infections such as Giardia. Some also refer to it by the brand name Flagyl.
The FDA has not approved this drug for use in canines, but a licensed veterinarian can safely prescribe it. The drug works by disrupting the creation of DNA in bacteria and only treats infections of anaerobic pathogens, though vets often use it with other antibiotics to cover other sources of infections.
Follow the instructions of your veterinarian strictly when giving any medication to your dog.
Here’s what you should know about the uses, dosage, and side effects of metronidazole in dogs.
Uses Of Metronidazole For Dogs
As mentioned before, metronidazole is used to treat conditions such as diarrhea and inflammation of the lower intestine when certain parasitic or bacterial infections are the cause. These include Giardia, Trichomonas and Balantidium coli.
Veterinarians can also use it to treat Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBS), sepsis, oral or dental infections, bone infections, or internal abscesses.
The drug is able to cross the blood-brain barrier, which makes it useful in treating central nervous system infections, as well.
Dosage Of Metronidazole For Dogs
The proper dosage of metronidazole for dogs depends on which condition is being treated. You should always rely on your veterinarian to give you the proper dosage for your dog.
In the case of Giardia, vets often prescribe 7 to 11 mg per pound given once every 24 hours, but the dosage can go as high as 29.5 mg per pound. If your dog has an infection from anaerobic bacteria, then you might expect your vet to prescribe 11 to 22 mg per pound to be given twice a day.
Metronidazole tablets typically come in doses of 250 to 500 mg per pill. Your vet can give you advice on how to properly measure the dose for your dog.
These pills have an extended release for humans. However, dogs have shorter digestive tracts and may only partially digest the medication before passing it. Again, follow the instructions of your vet for administering it.
In some cases of sepsis or if a dog has a blocked airway, a vet may inject the drug.
Risks And Side Effects Of Metronidazole For Dogs
Side effects of metronidazole in dogs are rare, and the drug is considered to be quite safe when administered properly.
Pregnant dogs and puppies, as well as dogs who have a history of liver or kidney disease, suffer from neutropenia, or have seizure disorders should not take this drug if it is avoidable. Make your vet aware of these conditions and any other medications your dog may be on.
Though the side effects are rare, long-term exposure heightens the risk.
Common side effects of metronidazole in dogs include the following:
- Nausea or vomiting
- Gagging or reguritation
- Loss of appetite
- Lethargy or fatigue
- Blood or darkening of urine
Some rare, more serious side effects that usually only occur with long-term use include low blood platelet count, liver damage, insomnia, or neurological conditions related to toxicity.
Neurological symptoms might include seizures, staggering, stiffness, or strange movements and behavior. If you notice these symptoms, contact your vet right away.
With nearly all medications, there is a risk of allergic reaction that can lead to anaphylaxis, a potentially fatal condition. If you see signs of an allergic reaction such as swelling, difficulty breathing, or closing of the throat, get to an emergency vet immediately.
Have you ever treated your dog with metronidazole? Did you see results? Let us know in the comments below!