Are crates necessary for housebreaking a puppy?
The main purpose crate training serves is to limit your puppy’s space indoors when you can’t watch or supervise her. Some people find crates unappealing or feel they have a jail-like atmosphere, but dogs, by nature, are denning animals. The truth is that they usually take great comfort in having a small, secure space of their own.
That said, there are alternatives to a crate. You could use an exercise pen or a small gate to section off a room–the idea is that the area must be small enough to keep your puppy from eliminating in one end and sleeping at the other end. (Puppies usually don’t mess where they sleep). Your pup can then “earn” her free time out of the crate or gated area by eliminating outside.